Theoretical Framework 1

A number of theories will serve as the source of the foundational principles that will comprise the main theoretical framework in this study. The first theory is Lev Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) which describes the actual and current development level of a learner as well as the next attainable development level that may be achieved through mediating environmental and semiotic tools along with capable peer or adult facilitation (Shabani, et al., 2010). [Access to some parts of the theoretical framework has been limited] Apparently, it is when a learner engages himself into a collaborative endeavor with a more skilled individual, that he/she best learns new concepts and acquires new skills (Shabani, et al., 2010).

The zone of proximal development measures the distance between what a learner is capable of doing at a certain point in time and what the learner can further achieve (also known as “potential development”) when support is provided during a specific task (Christmas, et al., 2013). This implies the crucial role of an adult guidance (i.e., the teacher) in the attainment of the learner’s potential development. In the context of this study, Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development is [Access to some parts of the theoretical framework has been limited] …. significance of the teacher’s role not only as a facilitator but as a collaborator with the students, as they aim for the next level of learning development. This implies that the issue on the teachers’ lack of sufficient qualifications and training may serve to contradict Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development (Mori, et al., 2014). This is because the only means for students to attain another level of learning development is for them to collaborate with competent and well-knowledgeable teachers and educators who have the capacity and experience to push them towards the next level of learning. In the absence of qualified, well-trained and [Access to some parts of the theoretical framework has been limited].

            Another theory by Lev Vygotsky, popularly known as the scaffolding theory highlights the importance of scaffolding as a concept which refers to the learning assistance or support that is being provided to the students. Scaffolding, based on this theory, must be provided by an adult who possesses advanced knowledge and skills, [Access to some parts of the theoretical framework has been limited] according to the scaffolding theory is that those who are less competent in learning must be assisted by knowledgeable and competent adults by means of suggesting, narrating, displaying, boosting, questioning as well as recapping. Consequently, as a result of such learning assistance, the students must be able to solve tasks independently, especially those that they are unable to handle all by themselves (Haider & Yasmin, 2015). [Access to some parts of the theoretical framework has been limited]



Flores, H. (2014). More DepEd programs to benefit children with special needs. Philippine Star.

Gargiulo, R. (2012). Special education in contemporary society: An introduction to exceptionality. SAGE.

Gomez, I., & Gomez, M. (2013). Quality of life of parents of filipino children with special needs. Education Quarterly, 71(2), 42-58.

Haider, M., & Yasmin, A. (2015). Significance of scaffolding and peer tutoring in the light of Vygotsky’s Theory of Zone of Proximal Development. International Journal of Literature and Linguistics, 1(3), 170-173.

[Access to some parts of the theoretical framework has been limited]


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